Depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tibebu, Nebiyu Solomon; Kassie, Belayneh Ayanaw; Anteneh, Tazeb Alemu; Rade, Bayew Kelkay. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 117(5): 317-325, 2023 05 02.Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240429
Assessing the maternal mental health status during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is necessary to prevent the occurrence of severe mental disorders. Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress disorders are prominent in pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Therefore this study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic.
An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referralhospitals from 17 October 2020 to 1 March 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 eligible women. A structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regressionanalysis was implemented to identify factors associated with women's depression, anxiety and stress. Statistical association was certain based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values ≤0.05.
Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women were 37.6% (95% CI 33 to 42.3), 42.1 (95% CI 37.7 to 46.7) and 34.8% (95% CI 30.3 to 39.2), respectively. Having an HIV-negative sexual partner (AOR 1.91 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.15]) and being on antiretroviral therapy >1 year (AOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.41 to 3.36]) were found to be statistically significant with women's antenatal depression, while unplanned pregnancy (AOR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 2.33]) and did not discuss with the sexual partner about HIV (AOR 3.21 [95% CI 2.12 to 7.07]) were the factors associated with prenatal anxiety.
In this study, more than one in three HIV-positive pregnant women had depression and anxiety. Thus, implementing strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy and advocating open discussion with sexual partners about HIVwillplay a large role in reducing pregnancy-related depression and anxiety.