Sleep quality and associated factors among adult people living with HIV on follow-up at Dessie Town Governmental Health Facilities Antiretroviral Therapy Clinics, Northeast, Ethiopia, 2020, a multicenter cross-sectional study
Poor sleep quality is an important health problem in people living with HIV. The exact cause of sleep disturbance is not well known, but it may relate to HIV itself, antiretroviral drug side effects, and other HIV-related disorders. As a result, the purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and associated factors among adult HIV patients on follow-up at Dessie Town governmental health facilities’ antiretroviral therapy clinics in Northeast Ethiopia in 2020.
A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted among 419 adult people living with HIV/AIDS from February 1/2020 to April 22/2020 in Dessie Town governmental antiretroviral therapy clinics. A systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. An interviewer-administered method of data collection with a chart review was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep disruption. A binary logistic regression was conducted to see the relationship between a dependent variable and independent variables. Variables with a p-value of < 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval were used to declare an association between factors and a dependent variable.
A total of 419 study participants were enrolled in this study, with a response rate of 100%. The mean age of the study participants was 36 ± 6.5 SD years and 63.7% of the participants were female. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 36% (95% CI, 31–41%). Being female (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.52–7.79), viral loads 1000 copies/ml (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI: 2.79–16.9), CD4 cell count 200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 6.85, 95% CI: 2.42–19.39), WHO stage II and III (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.05–17.53), having anxiety (AOR = 10, 95% CI: 4.21–23.9.
The findings of this study showed that more than one-third of the study participants had poor-quality sleep at the Dessie Town Health Facility ART clinic. Being female, low CD4 cell counts, viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, WHO stage II and III, depression, anxiety, sleeping in a communal bedroom, and living alone were predictors of poor sleep quality.